全国2008年10月高等教育自学考试 语言与文化试题 课程代码：00838I. Each of the following incomplete statements is followed by four alternatives. Read each statement and the four alternatives carefully and decide which of the four alternatives best completes the statement.(20%) 1.Culture is a loan word from _______.（ ） A. French B. Latin C. Roman D. Norwegian 2.Language, culture, and thought _______ , each influencing and shaping the other two.（ ） A. alternate B. change C. interact D. substitute
3.A meddlesome person who pries into others' affairs is called a _______. （ ） A. busman B. busybody C. ladies' man D. do-gooder
4.Thematic meaning is represented by the _______ of a word in a sentence.（ ） A. structure B. part of speech C. formation D. position
5.The word "international" consists of _______ morphemes.（ ） A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5
6.Which of the following statements is NOT true? （ ） A. English is a language with explicit grammar and Chinese is a language with implicit grammar. B. Compared with Chinese, English has more grammatical morphemes that are used more frequently in either speech or writing. C. Chinese has no grammatical morphemes. D. Grammatical explicitness and consistency are required in English.
7.Which of the following names is associated with Christianity? （ ） A. Edgar B. Joseph C. Alexander D. Iris
8. When you'd like to make a reply to the thanks from others, you may say, "_______". （ ） A. It' s my pleasure. B. No. You're too polite. C. It's my duty. D. No.
9.He saw a car accident when he was driving home. The above sentence is connected _______.（ ） A. hypotactically B. paratactially C. in a parallel way D. unreasonably
10. He didn't work. Instead, he went to see a movie. The logical relationship between the above sentences is _______. （ ） A. additive B. adversative C. causal D. temoral
11. "Congress passes tight budget.From the above example of a news headline, we can see that the most salient feature of the headline is _______.（ ） A. repetition B. concision C. smoothness D. omission
12. In British English, the letter "i" in the word "mobile" is pronounced as ______. （ ） A.  B. [ ] C. [ai] D. [i]
13. If the speaker wishes to signal that it is another person's turn to talk, he or she will finish his or her present utterance, look directly at the other person, and stop gesticulating. In this situation, the function of nonverbal message is ________. （ ） A. regulating B. contradicting C. accenting D. substituting
14. Nonverbal communication is communication without ________. （ ） A. action B. gestures C. eye contact D. words
15. The proverb "gossiping, and lying go hand in hand" is derived from _______. （ ） A. the Bible B. Greco-Roman Civilization C. Christianity D. geographic knowledge
16. The proverb "Bacchus bath drowned more men than Neptune" is related to ________.（ ） A. navigation B. wine C. geography D. history
17. In both English and Chinese ________ may be associated with pride. （ ） A. owls B. bears C. peacocks D. mules
18. "That idea won't sell" illustrates the metaphor that "________". （ ） A. Ideas are money B. Ideas are instruments C. Ideas are resources D. Ideas are commodities
19. Many, though not all, swear words in English are related to ________. （ ） A. Christianity B. Greco-Roman mythology C. sexism D. racism
20. ________ may be used by racists to refer to Jews. （ ） A. Japs B. Dagos C. Polacks D. Kikes
II. Each of the following incomplete statements is followed by four alternatives. Read each statement and the four alternatives carefully and decide which alternatives can complete the statement. There might be more than one correct answer. (10%) 21. Culture in its technical sense is ________.（ ） A. human specific B. a social phenomenon C. a national phenomenon D. a historical phenomenon
22. The word "woman" can be defined conceptually as ________ .（ ） A. an adult female B. biped C. long hair wearing D. prone to tears
23. In terms of onomatopoeic words, which of the following statements can be regarded as the truth? （ ） A. English onomatopoeic words can be used as verbs, adjectives, adverbs, nouns and modifiers. B. In fact they are used most frequently as nouns and verbs, the two most forceful word classes. C. Onomatopoeic words are large in number in English and they are very active. D. The grammatical functions they can serve include the subject, the predicate, the object, the attribute and the adverbial.
24. When you respond to the compliment "You look very nice in this dress", most probably you would say"________".（ ） A. Thank you. B. No, I don't think so at all. C. Do you really think so? I was not sure whether it suits me. D. It's very kind of you to say so.
25. According to its content, a letter contains ________ .（ ） A. purpose of writing the letter B. supporting information C. a routine remark D. handwriting
26. A news report normally consists of ________.（ ） A. a headline B. a lead C. a subtitle D. a story
27. "Chewing one's finger nails" signifies ________.（ ） A. relaxation B. emotional stress C. worry D. not knowing what to do
28. ________ is derived from Greco-Roman mythology. （ ） A. Europe B. the Atlantic Ocean C. Venus D. the forbidden fruit
29. In English "black" is often associated with negative qualities, as reflected in ____. （ ） A. in the black B. a black spot C. in black and white D. a black sheep
30. Nowadays a gardener should NOT be referred to as a ________ .（ ） A. sanitation engineer B. beautician C. landscape architect D. mortician
Ⅲ. Fill in each underlined space with a proper expression.(20%) 31. People have to speak a language according to its________. 32. The system of meaning shaped in a particular cultural context is________. 33. Analytic thinking interacts with English, while ______ thinking interacts with Chinese. 34. Given names used as vocatives suggest ________ between the addresser and the addressee. 35. It has been claimed that English texts develop in a linear fashion, while Chinese ones develop in a ________ way. 36. In American English, the equivalent word of "支票" is ________. 37. In the English body language forming an O with one's thumb and forefinger while stretching out the remaining three fingers signifies ________. 38. "Each cross hath its own inscription" is ,related to ________ because in it the word "cross" appears. 39. "I'm charmed by her" illustrates the metaphor that "Love is ________." 40. "To have a tendency to stretch the truth" simply means to ________.
IV. Answer the following questions briefly. (12%) 41. What does "a nine to five job" mean? 42. What difference is there between English and Chinese in terms of humility? 43. Why do Chinese people use "请" less extensively and frequently than "please" used in English ? 44. How is nonverbal communication related to culture?
V. Translation. (18%) 45．功利婚姻 46．你真是红光满面。 47. He is as strong as a horse. 48. Mills of God grind slow but sure. 49. Besides football, the most popular games in the United States are baseball and basketball. 50. Police action refers to a localized military action undertaken without formal declaration of war by regular forces against persons held to be violators of international peace and order.
VI. Discuss the following topics. (20 %) 51. Why are branching sentence patterns preferred in English? 52. What are terms of humility? And what are the cross-cultural differences between English and Chinese in terms of humility?