Passage 2All of us communicate with one another verbally as well as non-verbally. Most of the time we are not aware that we're doing it. We knit our eyebrows or wave a hand, meet someone else's eyes or look away, shift positions in a chair. We make these movements unconsciously. But researchers have discovered in recent years that there is a system to them almost as consistent (一致的) and comprehensible as language.
Every culture has its body language. A Frenchman talks and moves in French. The way an Englishman crosses his legs is nothing like the way a male American does it. In talking , Americans are likely to end a statement with a droop of the head or hand, a lowering of the eyelids. They wind up a question with a lift of the hand or a widening of the eyes. With a future-tense verb they often gesture with a forward movement.
There are regional idioms (方式) too; an expert can sometimes pick out a native of Wisconsin just by the way he uses his eyebrows during conversations. You sex, ethnic background, social class and personal style all influence your body language. Nevertheless, you move and gesture within the American idiom.
The person who is truly bilingual (双语的) is also bilingual in body language. New York's famous mayor, Fiorello La Guardian, politicked (竞选市长活动) in English, Italian and Yiddish. When films of his speeches are run without sound. it’s not too difficult to identify from his gestures the language he was speaking. One of the reasons English-dubbed (英语配音) foreign films often seem flat is that the gestures don's match the language.
Usually, the wordless communication acts to qualify the words. What the non-verbal elements express very often, and very efficiently, is the emotional side of the message. When a person feels liked or disliked, often it's a case of“not what he said but the way he said it.” Psychologist Albert Mehrabian has worked out this formula (公式): total impact of a message = 7 percent verbal 38 percent vocal 55 percent facial. The importance of the voice can be seen when you consider that even the words “I have you” can be made to sound sexy.
Experts in the study of communication through body movement are not prepared to spell out a precise vocabulary of gestures. When an American rubs his nose, it may mean he is disagreeing with someone or rejecting something. But there are other possible interpretations, too. Another example: when a student in conversation with a professor looks the older man in the eye a little longer than is usual, it can be a sign of respect and affection; it can be a subtle challenge to the professor's authority; or it can be something else entirely. The expert looks for patterns in the context, not for an isolated meaningful gesture.
56. In the first paragraph, which of the following actions is NOT mentioned as a way of non-verbal communications?A. Raising our eyebrows. B. Making eye contact. C. Changing positions in a chair. D. Crying in a low voice. 57. According to linguists, people's gestures areA. random and incidental. B. consistent and comprehensible. C. subtle and isolated. D. precise and sexy. 58. All of the following statements are true of Americans EXCEPT that theyA. start a question with widened eyes. B. have their forward movements in future-tense verbs. C. cross their legs in a different way that Englishmen do. D. tend to droop their heads or hands to conclude a statement. 59. In paragraph 3, which of the following is NOT a factor that influences one's body language?A. Sex.B. Educational background. C. Social status. D. Personal style. 60. Non-verbal communicationA. always expresses the message efficiently. B. usually doesn't match the language. C. sometimes isolates a meaning. D. often shows the speaker's true emotions.